Verifiable Fully Homomorphic Encryption


Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is seeing increasing real-world deployment to protect data in use by allowing computation over encrypted data. However, the same malleability that enables homomorphic computations also raises integrity issues, which have so far been mostly overlooked. While FHEs lack of integrity has obvious implications for correctness, it also has severe implications for confidentiality: a malicious server can leverage the lack of integrity to carry out interactive key-recovery attacks. As a result, virtually all FHE schemes and applications assume an honest-but-curious server who does not deviate from the protocol. In practice, however, this assumption is insufficient for a wide range of deployment scenarios. While there has been work that aims to address this gap, these have remained isolated efforts considering only aspects of the overall problem and fail to fully address the needs and characteristics of modern FHE schemes and applications. In this paper, we analyze existing FHE integrity approaches, present attacks that exploit gaps in prior work, and propose a new notion for maliciously-secure verifiable FHE. We then instantiate this new notion with a range of techniques, analyzing them and evaluating their performance in a range of different settings. We highlight their potential but also show where future work on tailored integrity solutions for FHE is still required.

under submission
Christian Knabenhans
Christian Knabenhans
Ph.D. student in security and privacy

Doctoral student at EPFL. Applied cryptography, privacy-enhancing technologies, useable security.